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Lyme disease A tick-borne illness & Symptoms of Disease

Medical Definition of Lyme disease

An acute inflammatory disease that is usually characterized initially by the skin lesion erythema migrans and by fatigue, fever, and chills and if left untreated may later manifest itself in cardiac and neurological disorders, joint pain, and arthritis and that is caused by a spirochete of the genus Borrelia (B. burgdorferi) transmitted by the bite of a tick especially of the genus Ixodes (I. scapularis synonym I. dammini in the eastern and midwestern United States, I. pacificus especially in some parts of the Pacific coastal states of the United States, and I. ricinus in Europe)

What are the symptoms of Lyme disease?


Early symptoms of Lyme disease involve:

  • A rash that looks like a bull’s eye ( scientific name: erythema migrans)
  • Fever
  • Chills
  • Headache
  • Fatigue
  • Muscle and joint aches
  • Swollen lymph nodes

According to the CDC, symptoms can start between 3 to 30 days after the tick bite (average is about 7 days). The rash expands gradually and can reach up to 12 inches. or in some cases even more. It can also feel warm to the touch but is rarely itchy or painful.

Later signs and symptoms:

  • Severe headaches and neck stiffness
  • Rashes on other parts of the body
  • Arthritis with severe joint pain and swelling, especially in the knees.
  • Loss of muscle tone
  • Intermittent pain in tendons, muscles, joints, and bones
  • Heart palpitations or an irregular heartbeat
  • Dizziness or shortness of breath
  • Inflammation of the brain and spinal cord
  • Shooting pains, numbness, or tingling in the hands or the feet
  • Short-term memory problems

Treatment of Lyme disease by antibiotics

Most people with Lyme disease recover completely with appropriate antibiotic treatment. For those who develop syndromes after their infection is treated, pain medication may provide symptomatic relief.


Stops the growth of or kills bacteria.
Penicillin antibiotic
Stops growth of or kills specific bacteria.
Nonsteroidal anti-Inflammatory drug
Relieves pain, decreases inflammation and reduces fever.

air pollutions
Diseases Science

10 Most Common Diseases caused by Air Pollution in 2019

Air Pollution is one of the most widespread pollution and is one of the inevitable ones. Being an ever-pervading medium and carrier, air can transfer the pollutants very fast in no time; making it almost impossible for any person breathing in the polluted air, to avoid the infection. Though the pollutant level, reaction to the pollutants and infestation of the pollutant based diseases in every person is different; the fact that air pollution can have injurious effects on the human body can just not be ignored.

This post shall be focusing on 10 such diseases caused by the air pollution and what pollutants cause them.

#1 — Asthma:

This is one of the most common diseases that can affect the humans breathing in the polluted air. This is a chronic disease in which inflammation is caused in the air passages of the human body and the person finds it difficult to breathe. Heavy breathing while doing normal routine activities and strenuous ones are some of the basic symptoms of the disease.

Asthma is caused by the particulate matter, oxides of sulfur and nitrogen and ground-level ozone. Tobacco smoke can also be a cause of the same and the parents, friends, family members and other people in close contact with the patient should refrain from smoking in his or her presence.

One of the things that the asthma patients can do is use the Fresh Air Bottles in order to give a blast of pure and fresh air to their lungs and respiratory system. However, the consultation with a physician first is advised.

#2 — Lung Cancer:

Owing to the presence of various carcinogens in the air, the lungs can get infested with them which in turn can lead to lung or pulmonary cancer. The disease involves uncontrolled growth of the cells in one or both of the lungs causing a reduction in the oxygen-carrying capacity and malfunctioning in the complete working of the respiratory system.

Though the lung cancer cures depend on the type of cancer and the level of infection in the lungs, the Fresh Air Cans may be a possible solution to reduce the effect of such carcinogens in the polluted air.

#3 — COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease)

COPD is caused by the air pollution in which the air passages and air sacs or the alveoli change their shape and become distended. Thus, the patient finds it difficult to breathe even while sitting or doing nothing. Emphysema and Chronic Bronchitis are two types of COPD which are common and can lead to cancer and premature deaths as well.

The most affected people are the people working in the mines, quarries and docks etc that are in constant contact with the dust, fine dust, and diesel fumes etc.

Using air purifiers and Fresh Air Cans may be prevention but complete cure requires intensive doctoral involvement and medicines.

#4 — Leukemia:

It is a disease (the type of cancer) caused by exposure to the benzene vapors and is fatal as well. The WBCs or the White Blood Cells get increased in the amount owing to persistent infection caused by the infection and the respiratory tract is infected heavily.

#5 — Pneumonia:

10 Most Common Diseases caused by Air Pollution in 2019 2
Polluted air also carries bacteria that get inhaled into the respiratory tract which in turn causes pneumonia. The disease might get worse with continued breathing of the polluted air and the disease might get worse with some other disease caused by the pollution.

Using air filters wherever possible and Fresh Air Bottles might be a probable prevention of the disease and might prove beneficial for the patients as well. But immediate doctor assistance is important and advised in all cases.

#6 — Birth defects and immune system defects:

There are a number of defects that can occur in the newborn as well as unborn babies owing to exposure to the polluted air and breathing of polluted air by the pregnant mother respectively. The babies born in the areas with air pollution will have lower immunity against the infections, cough, and cold and might also exhibit some inborn allergies as well.

The pregnant ladies can consult with the doctors and use the air filters as well as the Fresh Air Cans which are immunity boosters and nullify the effect of the pollutants on the respiratory system.

#7 — Autism:

Recent studies have revealed that air pollution can also cause Autism — a disease in which the patient has a tendency to live alone.

#8 — Weakening of Lung Function:

If the level of the air pollution is not high, there might be a general or gradual weakening of the lung function in the people breathing in the polluted air. This can be exhibited in a number of forms such as allergies, panting while doing heavy or normal daily routine activities and very low immunity to a cough and cold etc.

Auzair Fresh Air Bottles may help in counter-effecting all such infections and thus help the body to regain its strength.

#9 — Cardiovascular Diseases:

Owing to the presence of a number of poisonous substances in the polluted air, poisonous gases, and particulate matter, the people living in the polluted environment exhibit a lot of cardiovascular diseases of various kinds. The extent of exposure to the pollutants can determine the degree of the disease and infection.

#10 — Premature Deaths:

It has been found that pollutants in the air can lead to premature deaths owing to different reasons such as asphyxiation and extreme reactions caused by the body to the pollutant matter. Every year a huge number of premature deaths are registered all across the world owing to the pollution.

Though the ever pervading air pollution is really difficult to be handled and fought with, the Fresh Air Bottles can be a big help. These bottles are filled with pure air, every single breath of which sends a boost of freshness and life down to the cellular level.


Most Common Infectious Diseases

Infectious diseases are disorders caused by organisms — such as bacteria, viruses, fungi or parasites. Many organisms live in and on our bodies. They’re normally harmless or even helpful, but under certain conditions, some organisms may cause disease. Some infectious diseases can be passed from person to person.

Hepatitis B

According to current statistics, hepatitis B is the most common infectious disease in the world, affecting some 2 billion people — that’s more than one-quarter of the world’s population. This disease, which is characterized by an inflammation of the liver that leads to jaundice, nausea, and fatigue, can lead to long-term complications such as cirrhosis of the liver or even liver cancer. The concern is primarily for those who carry the chronic form of the disease, which is estimated to be about 350 million people.

Perhaps one of the best known therapies here is Gilead Sciences’ (NASDAQ:GILD) Viread, which was approved in the U.S. in 2008 and blocks an enzyme that the hepatitis B virus needs to replicate in liver cells. According to Gilead’s third-quarter report, sales of the drug were up 11% through the first nine months over the previous year, and it should deliver more than $900 million in cumulative sales by the time fiscal 2013 is over. With a strong presence in AIDS therapies as well, Gilead is quickly becoming an infectious-disease juggernaut.

Another name to keep an eye on here is Dynavax Technoloogies (NASDAQ:DVAX). Although the FDA has been less than cooperative with Dynavax’s attempts to bring Heplisav to market, implying that the company may need to run an additional trial to satisfy its safety concerns, Heplisav had demonstrated impressive efficacy in clinical trials.


Malaria, a mosquito-borne disease that tends to affect children the most in tropical and subtropical climates, affects more than 500 million people annually and results in anywhere between 1 million and 3 million deaths. Behind hepatitis B, it appears to be the second most-common infectious disease, and it certainly is one of the most deadly on an annual basis.

Increasing public awareness of the dangers of mosquitoes in tropical and subtropical climates has helped somewhat, but malaria cases have unfortunately been on the rise again in recent years. The most common anti-malarial medication available is an oral therapy known as Lariam, which the U.S. Army invented in the late 1980s but was licensed to Roche (NASDAQOTH:RHHBY), which sold it through August 2009. The drug is now sold in generic versions.

While a relatively effective first-line preventative treatment and second-line therapy following contraction of the disease, Lariam also has a laundry list of side effects, including serious neurological and psychiatric side effects that, in July, prompted the FDA to beef up its stance concerning Lariam with a black-box warning.

Hepatitis C

Hepatitis C is a less common and less severe form of hepatitis, but it almost always develops into a chronic, not acute, condition, unlike hepatitis B. Although only 3 million to 4 million new cases are reported each year, some 180 million people worldwide suffer from this chronic condition, which can lead to liver cancer or cirrhosis of the liver over time.

Advancements in the U.S. for treating hepatitis C have been nothing short of breathtaking over the past three years. Three years ago, the standard of treatment involved pegylated interferon and a ribavirin over the course of 24 or 48 weeks. The net result was a response (not a cure, just a response) in around 50% of HCV-positive patients. With the approval of Gilead Sciences’ Sovaldi earlier this month, patients with genotype 1 (the most common form of the disease) can expect a sustained virologic response, or SVR (an undetectable level of disease), after 12 weeks in more than 90% of cases.

In addition, AbbVie (NYSE:ABBV) is also developing its own direct-acting antiviral combo drug, which has demonstrated a 12-week SVR of greater than 90% as well in the tough-to-treat genotype 1 patient subset. It’s extremely rare to develop a cure for such a global disease nowadays, but we could well be on our way to one when it comes to treating hepatitis C.


It’s at times like these that we curse mosquitoes, because a very specific type of mosquito (Aedes aegypti) is responsible for the transmission of dengue to approximately 50 million people each year. Dengue is most common in Africa and Asia and thankfully occurs in only mild to moderate forms, which can cause high fever, severe headaches, and joint and muscle pain, but rarely leads to the death of the infected patient.

Amazingly enough, even though this infectious disease affects some 50 million people annually, there isn’t a specific drug designed to treat dengue fever. The most commonly prescribed medication to reduce the symptoms associated with dengue fever is … Tylenol. That’s right, Johnson & Johnson’s (NYSE:JNJ) Tylenol, whose active ingredient is acetaminophen, works to reduce both fever and muscle pain in patients. In the most serious cases of dengue fever, IVs and blood transfusions may be needed.


As I mentioned previously, estimating new and ongoing cases for some of these diseases can be downright difficult, and perhaps none more so than tuberculosis. TB is caused by a bacteria found in the lungs that can cause chest pain and a bad cough, as well as lead to a number of other nasty side effects. According to WHO, it’s also the second-leading global killer behind AIDS as a single infectious agent.

The majority of TB-associated deaths (95%) occur in low- to middle-income countries where TB awareness and prevention simply aren’t where they need to be. The good news is that TB death rates on a global basis are falling; however, there were still 8.6 million new cases of TB reported last year, and roughly one-third of the world’s population carries a latent form of TB, meaning they’ve been infected but aren’t ill and can’t transmit the disease yet.

While many of today’s TB treatments have long since come off patent, the FDA did approve a new drug in late 2012 named Sirturo, made by Johnson & Johnson, to treat multidrug-resistant TB. Plainly put, not all strains of TB respond to the common forms of treatment, and MDR-TB is an especially virulent killer, so Sirturo has a genuine shot at treating what is essentially the worst of the worst when it comes to TB strains. Peak sales estimates for the drug range between $300 million and $400 million.

source :The Motley Fool